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  1. Quantitative Relationship of Soil Texture with the Observed Population Density Reduction of Heterodera glycines after Annual Corn Rotation in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Oscar; Giesler, Loren J.


    Soil texture has been commonly associated with the population density of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode: SCN), but such an association has been mainly described in terms of textural classes. In this study, multivariate analysis and a generalized linear modeling approach were used to elucidate the quantitative relationship of soil texture with the observed SCN population density reduction after annual corn rotation in Nebraska. Forty-five commercial production fields were sampled in 2009, 2010, and 2011 and SCN population density (eggs/100 cm3 of soil) for each field was determined before (Pi) and after (Pf) annual corn rotation from ten 3 × 3-m sampling grids. Principal components analysis revealed that, compared with silt and clay, sand had a stronger association with SCN Pi and Pf. Cluster analysis using the average linkage method and confirmed through 1,000 bootstrap simulations identified two groups: one corresponding to predominant silt-and-clay fields and other to sand-predominant fields. This grouping suggested that SCN relative percent population decline was higher in the sandy than in the silt-and-clay predominant group. However, when groups were compared for their SCN population density reduction using Pf as the response, Pi as a covariate, and incorporating the year and field variability, a negative binomial generalized linear model indicated that the SCN population density reduction was not statistically different between the sand-predominant field group and the silt-and-clay predominant group. PMID:24987160

  2. Quantitative estimation of Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission precipitation radar signals from ground-based polarimetric radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Chandrasekar, V.


    The Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) is the first mission dedicated to measuring rainfall from space using radar. The precipitation radar (PR) is one of several instruments aboard the TRMM satellite that is operating in a nearly circular orbit with nominal altitude of 350 km, inclination of 35°, and period of 91.5 min. The PR is a single-frequency Ku-band instrument that is designed to yield information about the vertical storm structure so as to gain insight into the intensity and distribution of rainfall. Attenuation effects on PR measurements, however, can be significant and as high as 10-15 dB. This can seriously impair the accuracy of rain rate retrieval algorithms derived from PR signal returns. Quantitative estimation of PR attenuation is made along the PR beam via ground-based polarimetric observations to validate attenuation correction procedures used by the PR. The reflectivity (Zh) at horizontal polarization and specific differential phase (Kdp) are found along the beam from S-band ground radar measurements, and theoretical modeling is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k) along the space-Earth path at Ku-band frequency from these measurements. A theoretical k-Kdp relationship is determined for rain when Kdp ≥ 0.5°/km, and a power law relationship, k = a Zhb, is determined for light rain and other types of hydrometers encountered along the path. After alignment and resolution volume matching is made between ground and PR measurements, the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) is calculated along the PR propagation path by integrating the specific attenuation along the path. The PR reflectivity derived after removing the PIA is also compared against ground radar observations.

  3. On Using WWLLN Observations as Starting Information for the Quantitative Schumann Resonance Monitoring of Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Guha, A.; Williams, E.


    The idea of the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) monitoring of global lightning activity is based on the small attenuation (a few tenths of dB/Mm) of ELF waves and, hence, the occurrence of interference phenomena (Schumann resonance (SR) patterns). As a result, SR observations: a) collect signals from parent lightning events over the entire current moment range (in contrast to the events from the tail of the distribution in the WWLLN data), b) cover the activity regions of the entire globe practically uniformly from a net of a few stations (in contrast to the spatially and temporarily non-uniform coverage by the WWLLN), and c) provide information on the mutual locations of sources and observers uniquely reflected in the SR characteristics (modal intensities, frequencies, and quality factors). However, some physically substantiated advantages (for instance, the global coverage) of the SR technique turn into certain methodological shortcomings (for instance, low spatial resolution) when the technique is exploited as a practical monitoring procedure. While some of the SR shortcomings (such as spatial resolution ) are not important when considering the source strengths of global lightning regions (chimneys) with continental dimensions, other challenges of the SR technique require use of additional information. As a primary challenge, there is the problem of an extremely complicated multi-dimensional relief of the functional minimized in the inversion procedure; due to the presence of local (secondary) minima along with the global (major) one, the inversion's result is critically dependent on the quality of initial guesses for the sought-for parameters of the source model (geographical locations, dimensions, and quantitative source strengths of the major chimneys). Attempts to use the general lightning climatology for this initial guess have not resolved the problem of local minima due to the pronounced day-to-day variability of lightning scenarios in individual chimneys

  4. Merging Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPEs) from the High-resolution NEXRAD Reanalysis over CONUS with Rain-gauge Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.; Stevens, S. E.; Nickl, E.; Seo, D. J.; Kim, B.; Zhang, J.; Qi, Y.


    The processing of radar-only precipitation via the reanalysis from the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative (NMQ/Q2) based on the WSR-88D Next-generation Radar (Nexrad) network over the Continental United States (CONUS) is completed for the period covering from 2002 to 2011. While this constitutes a unique opportunity to study precipitation processes at higher resolution than conventionally possible (1-km, 5-min), the long-term radar-only product needs to be merged with in-situ information in order to be suitable for hydrological, meteorological and climatological applications. The radar-gauge merging is performed by using rain gauge information at daily (Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily: GHCN-D), hourly (Hydrometeorological Automated Data System: HADS), and 5-min (Automated Surface Observing Systems: ASOS; Climate Reference Network: CRN) resolution. The challenges related to incorporating differing resolution and quality networks to generate long-term large-scale gridded estimates of precipitation are enormous. In that perspective, we are implementing techniques for merging the rain gauge datasets and the radar-only estimates such as Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Simple Kriging (SK), Ordinary Kriging (OK), and Conditional Bias-Penalized Kriging (CBPK). An evaluation of the different radar-gauge merging techniques is presented and we provide an estimate of uncertainty for the gridded estimates. In addition, comparisons with a suite of lower resolution QPEs derived from ground based radar measurements (Stage IV) are provided in order to give a detailed picture of the improvements and remaining challenges.

  5. Correlation of Quantitative Motor State Assessment Using a Kinetograph and Patient Diaries in Advanced PD: Data from an Observational Study.


    Ossig, Christiana; Gandor, Florin; Fauser, Mareike; Bosredon, Cecile; Churilov, Leonid; Reichmann, Heinz; Horne, Malcolm K; Ebersbach, Georg; Storch, Alexander


    Effective management and development of new treatment strategies for response fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) largely depends on clinical rating instruments such as the PD home diary. The Parkinson's kinetigraph (PKG) measures movement accelerations and analyzes the spectral power of the low frequencies of the accelerometer data. New algorithms convert each hour of continuous PKG data into one of the three motor categories used in the PD home diary, namely motor Off state and On state with and without dyskinesia. To compare quantitative motor state assessment in fluctuating PD patients using the PKG with motor state ratings from PD home diaries. Observational cohort study on 24 in-patients with documented motor fluctuations who completed diaries by rating motor Off, On without dyskinesia, On with dyskinesia, and asleep for every hour for 5 consecutive days. Simultaneously collected PKG data (recorded between 6 am and 10 pm) were analyzed and calibrated to the patient's individual thresholds for Off and dyskinetic state by novel algorithms classifying the continuous accelerometer data into these motor states for every hour between 6 am and 10 pm. From a total of 2,040 hours, 1,752 hours (87.4%) were available for analyses from calibrated PKG data (7.5% sleeping time and 5.1% unclassified motor state time were excluded from analyses). Distributions of total motor state hours per day measured by PKG showed moderate-to-strong correlation to those assessed by diaries for the different motor states (Pearson's correlations coefficients: 0.404-0.658), but inter-rating method agreements on the single-hour-level were only low-to-moderate (Cohen's κ: 0.215-0.324). The PKG has been shown to capture motor fluctuations in patients with advanced PD. The limited correlation of hour-to-hour diary and PKG recordings should be addressed in further studies.

  6. A Comparative Study of Factors Related to Student Performance in Online and Traditional Face-to-Face MBA Courses That Are Quantitative and Qualitative in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carenado V.


    Online learning environments have been embraced by many institutions, faculty, and students as a viable adult learning option to the traditional face-to-face learning environment. As this mode of delivery for instruction continues to grow in acceptance, it is important to understand the characteristics of adult learners, the historical progression…

  7. Beginning to Understand Why New Hampshire's Rural Educators Chose Not to Join New Hampshire's Newly Developed On-Line Professional Learning Communities: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Cheryl B.


    Rural educators face many barriers when trying to participate in high quality professional development, including isolation, funding issues, distance, and lack of temporary replacements. Technological solutions can assist rural educators in overcoming these barriers. Participating in on-line professional learning communities can provide New…

  8. In-situ TEM - a tool for quantitative observations of deformation behavior in thin films and nano-structured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stach, E.A.


    This paper highlights future developments in the field of in-situ transmission electron microscopy, as applied specifically to the issues of deformation in thin films and nanostructured materials. Emphasis is place on the forthcoming technical advances that will aid in extraction of improved quantitative experimental data using this technique.

  9. Understanding online health information: Evaluation, tools, and strategies.


    Beaunoyer, Elisabeth; Arsenault, Marianne; Lomanowska, Anna M; Guitton, Matthieu J


    Considering the status of the Internet as a prominent source of health information, assessing online health material has become a central issue in patient education. We describe the strategies available to evaluate the characteristics of online health information, including readability, emotional content, understandability, usability. Popular tools used in assessment of readability, emotional content and comprehensibility of online health information were reviewed. Tools designed to evaluate both printed and online material were considered. Readability tools are widely used in online health material evaluation and are highly covariant. Assessment of emotional content of online health-related communications via sentiment analysis tools is becoming more popular. Understandability and usability tools have been developed specifically for health-related material, but each tool has important limitations and has been tested on a limited number of health issues. Despite the availability of numerous assessment tools, their overall reliability differs between readability (high) and understandability (low). Approaches combining multiple assessment tools and involving both quantitative and qualitative observations would optimize assessment strategies. Effective assessment of online health information should rely on mixed strategies combining quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Assessment tools should be selected according to their functional properties and compatibility with target material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Commercial Online Social Network Data and Statin Side-Effect Surveillance: A Pilot Observational Study of Aggregate Mentions on Facebook.


    Huesch, Marco D


    Surveillance of the safety of prescribed drugs after marketing approval has been secured remains fraught with complications. Formal ascertainment by providers and reporting to adverse-event registries, formal surveys by manufacturers, and mining of electronic medical records are all well-known approaches with varying degrees of difficulty, cost, and success. Novel approaches may be a useful adjunct, especially approaches that mine or sample internet-based methods such as online social networks. A novel commercial software-as-a-service data-mining product supplied by Sysomos from Datasift/Facebook was used to mine all mentions on Facebook of statins and stain-related side effects in the US in the 1-month period 9 January 2017 through 8 February 2017. A total of 4.3% of all 25,700 mentions of statins also mentioned typical stain-related side effects. Multiple methodological weaknesses stymie interpretation of this percentage, which is however not inconsistent with estimates that 5-20% of patients taking statins will experience typical side effects at some time. Future work on pharmacovigilance may be informed by this novel commercial tool, but the inability to mine the full text of a posting poses serious challenges to content categorization.

  11. Public reaction to the UK government strategy on childhood obesity in England: A qualitative and quantitative summary of online reaction to media reports.


    Gregg, Rebecca; Patel, Ajay; Patel, Sumaiya; O'Connor, Laura


    This work aimed to summarise public real-time reaction to the publication of the UK government childhood obesity strategy by applying a novel research design method. We used a netnographic technique to carry out thematic analysis of user-generated comments to online newspaper articles related to the strategy. We examined likes/dislikes associated with comments as a proxy of agreement of the wider community with identified themes. To examine media influence on the comments we carried out thematic analysis of online media headlines published about the strategy, and compared these themes with themes identified from comments. Three newspaper articles and 1704 associated comments were included. Three parent themes were identified: paternalism/libertarianism, lobbyist influence and, anecdotal solutions. The comments were largely negative (94%). Commenters were split as to individual responsibilities and the role of the government, some felt that lobbyist influence had won out over the nation's health and others offered non-evidence based solutions. The ten most liked and disliked comments reflected themes identified in our main analysis. There was parity between themes that emerged from comments and from headlines. This summary of public reaction to the obesity strategy publication may aid translation of public views and receptiveness into practice and inform subsequent government action and policy. Furthermore, the process applied herein may provide a means of informal public engagement.

  12. Classroom Observations and Reflections: Using Online Streaming Video as a Tool for Overcoming Barriers and Engaging in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; McCrory, Michael R.; Blessing, Stephen


    In typical school settings, teachers are not afforded the opportunity to observe the instructional practices of their peers. Time constraints, opportunity, and willingness to participate in observational practices are just three of the factors that may limit teachers' engagement in this type of activity. To provide teachers with opportunities to…

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photoelectric observations of Cepheids in UBV(RI)c (Berdnikov, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.


    This catalog gathers the observation of 894 Cepheids made between 1986 to 2004. Observations are listed in alphabetical order of the constellations. The standard deviation for every magnitude and color is 0.01mag. This version supersedes the 1997 edition (Cat. ) (3 data files).

  14. [Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples using on-line solid phase extraction with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry].


    Huang, Kejian; Lu, Minping; Zhou, Zhe; Lin, Cuiwu; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Dingji; Liang, Ping; Qiao, Wentao; Li, Hongsen; Li, Lu; Huang, Xiaoqing


    A new and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-LIT/MS) with on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE). The samples were treated with acetonitrile, followed by dilution, centrifugation, and filtration. The resulting solution was injected into the LC system directly and processed by on-line SPE column for enrichment and purification. Separation was performed on a C18 column with mixed mobile phases of methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution for gradient elution. The analytes were detected by the mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. MS2 full scan signals of the target parent ions within the locked retention time window were recorded. Self-built database searching was performed for qualitative confirmation, and MS2 fragment ions with high sensitivity and specificity were selected for quantification. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of the seven rodenticides were achieved in this way. Good linearities were obtained within the investigated mass concentration ranges of the seven rodenticides, with r2 ≥ 0.9958 in blood and r2 ≥ 0.9946 in urine. The LODs varied from 0.02 ng/mL to 1.00 ng/mL, and the LOQs varied from 0.10 ng/mL to 4.00 ng/mL. The recoveries at three spiked levels in blood and urine samples ranged from 81.0% to 113.9%, with RSDs of 0.1%-6.2% (n = 6). The developed method is simple, sensitive, and can be used for the rapid detection and accurate quantification of the seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Observations of PHEMU97 and PHEMU03 at Ukkel (Pauwels+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, T.; Vingerhoets, P.; Cuypers, J.; Lampens, P.


    Each file gives the data of the lightcurve of a mutual phenomenon of Galilean Satellites of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, as observed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. (20 data files).

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CHANG-ES. IV. VLA D-configuration observations (Wiegert+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, T.; Irwin, J.; Miskolczi, A.; Schmidt, P.; Mora, S. C.; Damas-Segovia, A.; Stein, Y.; English, J.; Rand, R. J.; Santistevan, I.; Walterbos, R.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Kepley, A.; Wezgowiec, M.; Wang, Q. D.; Heald, G.; Li, J.; MacGregor, S.; Johnson, M.; Strong, A. W.; Desouza, A.; Porter, T. A.


    This is the fourth paper in the series "Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey" (CHANG-ES). With CHANG-ES, we have observed 35 nearby edge-on galaxies in the radio continuum in L- and C-bands (centered at approximately 1.5 and 6GHz, respectively), in three array configurations (B, C, D; in the B configuration only L-band was observed) of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (hereafter VLA). We refer to Table1 of Irwin et al. (2012AJ....144...43I; Paper I) for details of the galaxy sample. Two other papers, Irwin et al. (2012AJ....144...44I; Paper II) and Irwin et al. (2013AJ....146..164I; Paper III), present the detailed results of CHANG-ES observations of NGC 4631 and UGC 10288, respectively. In this, the fourth CHANG-ES paper, we present all observations that were carried out in the shortest baseline array configuration, D. The data products (including intensity maps, spectral index maps, and polarization maps) are part of our Data Release 1, located at Of the 405hr that were awarded for the entire CHANG-ES project, 65hr were set apart for the D-configuration observations in two frequency bands, L and C. The observations were divided up into 13 scheduling blocks. The bulk of the data were observed during 2011 December. Two scheduling blocks were reobserved in 2013 March. The details of the observations are presented in Table1. (5 data files).

  17. On-line coupling of automated solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Quantitation of oxidizable drugs of abuse and their metabolites in plasma and urine.


    Krämer, E; Kovar, K A


    The concentration effect of automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in combination with HPLC and very sensitive electrochemical detection was employed for the determination of N-ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-amphetamine (HMEA, the main metabolite of the ecstasy analogue MDE), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in plasma and urine in comparison to a previously published psilocin assay. For the SPE either CBA (functional group: carboxypropyl)- or CH (functional group: cyclohexyl)-sorbent was used. The following separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column (LiChroCart, Superspher 60 RP select B from Merck). Depending on the hydrodynamic voltammogram of the analyzed substance the oxidation potential varied from 920 mV up to 1.2 V. In spite of using high potentials, precision and accuracy were always within the accepted statistical requirements. The limits of quantitation were between 5 ng/ml (THC, THC-COOH in plasma) and 20 ng/ml (HMEA in plasma). Advantages of on-line SPE in comparison with off-line methods were less manual effort, evidently smaller volumes (< or = 400 microliters) of plasma or urine and almost always higher recovery rates (> 93%). The assays have been successfully proven with real biological samples and found suitable for use in routine analysis.

  18. Quantitative on-line preconcentration-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water.


    Idder, Salima; Ley, Laurent; Mazellier, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène


    One of the current environmental issues concerns the presence and fate of pharmaceuticals in water bodies as these compounds may represent a potential environmental problem. The characterization of pharmaceutical contamination requires powerful analytical method able to quantify these pollutants at very low concentration (few ng L(-1)). In this work, a multi-residue analytical methodology (on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization) has been developed and validated for 40 multi-class pharmaceuticals and metabolites for tap and surface waters. This on-line SPE method was very convenient and efficient compared to classical off-line SPE method because of its shorter total run time including sample preparation and smaller sample volume (1 mL vs up to 1 L). The optimized method included several therapeutic classes as lipid regulators, antibiotics, beta-blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, antineoplastic, etc., with various physicochemical properties. Quantification has been achieved with the internal standards. The limits of detection are between 0.7 and 15 ng L(-1) for drinking waters and 2-15 ng L(-1) for surface waters. The inter-day precision values are below 20% for each studied level. The improvement and strength of the analytical method has been verified along a monitoring of these 40 pharmaceuticals in Isle River, a French stream located in the South West of France. During this survey, 16 pharmaceutical compounds have been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 93.2GHz observations of 9C sources (Davies+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. L.; Stefan, I. I.; Bolton, R. C.; Carpenter, J. M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Green, D. A.; Hobson, M. P.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Olamaie, M.; Perrott, Y. C.; Pooley, G. G.; Riley, J. M.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, C.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, P. F.; Shimwell, T. W.; Titterington, D. J.; Waldram, E. M.; Whittam, I. H.


    In this paper, results are presented from 93.2-GHz observations of 80 9C sources from the samples of Bolton et al. 2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/354/485. The six 10.4-m diameter and nine 6.1-m diameter CARMA (Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy) antennas were used to make 93.2-GHz observations of the sources in the 00h field in nine days between 2008 August 18 and 2008 October 4, and of the sources in the 15h field in nine days between 2009 June 14 and 2009 June 30. The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI LA) was used to carry out observations at 15.7GHz of the 00h-field sources between 2008 August 21 and 2008 August 24 and the 15h-field sources between 2009 June 16 and 2009 June 20. (1 data file).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1-20um observations of Herbig-Haro objects (Molinari+ 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, S.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzetti, D.


    For 58 exciting sources of Herbig-Haro objects/jets (HHES) we present a catalogue of photometric data for the infrared spectral bands JHKLMNQ (1-20 um). This catalog is based on our own observations and published information available up to May 1992. For each source, these data are presented in chronological order. In addition to the broad-band data, narrow-band N(8-13 um) photometric data are also provided. The flux calibration for each observational equipment is explicitly noted as the diaphragm sizes are used. The same kind of information for the established members of the FU Ori class is complementing the HHES catalogue. The frequency of observations and the photometric quality of the catalogued data are shortly discussed. (4 data files).

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